Two inflection points, one within the Middle Palaeolithic ca 75 ka and the other between the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic ca 45 ka, are examined in light of recently-discovered evidence for rapid climate change and environmental deterioration.
It is proposed that both periods mark regional extinctions and turnovers of hominin populations. The first of these occurred among early Homo sapiens , the second among Neanderthals. Each event was followed by dispersal of hominin populations into the Levant from adjacent regions. Differences in Middle vs.
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Upper Palaeolithic Homo sapiens ' long-term success in the Levant may reflect recently-evolved strategies for coping with rapid climate change and with colder arid habitats. Homo Sapiens 1. Nearly a century of psychological research and recent advances in neuropsychology suggest that there is a "learning to learn" stage in early childhood, during which children need to create the foundations of human cognition, which relies upon the ability to logically categorise incoming information.
Mid-twentieth-century psychologists…. The Homo sapiens 'hemibun': its developmental pattern and the problem of homology.
The occipital bun is widely considered a Neanderthal feature. Its homology to the 'hemibun' observed in some European Upper Palaeolithic anatomically modern humans is a current problem. This study quantitatively evaluates the degree of occipital plane convexity in African and Australian modern human crania to analyse a relationship between this feature and some neurocranial variables.
Neanderthal and European Upper Palaeolithic Homo sapiens crania were included in the analysis as well. The results of this study indicated that there is a significant relationship between the degree of occipital plane convexity and the following two features in the examined crania of modern humans: the ratio of the maximum neurocranial height to the maximum width of the vault and the ratio of bregma-lambda chord to bregma-lambda arc.
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The results also revealed that some H. This study suggests that the occurrence of the great convexity of the occipital plane in the Neanderthals and H. Pygmoid Australomelanesian Homo sapiens skeletal remains from Liang Bua, Flores: Population affinities and pathological abnormalities.
Jacob, T. Data of 10 SSR markers for genomes of homo sapiens and monkeys. All loci showed 4 Base Pair bp in allele size, indicating that there are some polymorphisms between individuals correlating to the number of SSR repeats that maybe useful for the detection of similarity among the genotypes. Collectively, these data show that the SSR extraction is a valuable method to illustrate genetic variation of genomes.
Body composition in Pan paniscus compared with Homo sapiens has implications for changes during human evolution. The human body has been shaped by natural selection during the past 4—5 million years. Fossils preserve bones and teeth but lack muscle, skin, fat, and organs. To understand the evolution of the human form, information about both soft and hard tissues of our ancestors is needed. Our closest living relatives of the genus Pan provide the best comparative model to those ancestors. Here, we present data on the body composition of 13 bonobos Pan paniscus measured during anatomical dissections and compare the data with Homo sapiens.
These comparative data suggest that both females and males i increased body fat, ii decreased relative muscle mass, iii redistributed muscle mass to lower limbs, and iv decreased relative mass of skin during human evolution. Comparison of soft tissues between Pan and Homo provides new insights into the function and evolution of body composition.
Sapiens by Yuval Noah Harari
The human body has been shaped by natural selection during the past million years. Similarity analysis between chromosomes of Homo sapiens and monkeys with correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures. In this paper, we consider correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures for evaluating similarity between Homo sapiens and monkeys.
We used DNA chromosomes of genome wide genes to determine the correlation between the chromosomal content and evolutionary relationship. The similarity among the H. The similarity measures of these different species show the relationship between the H. This similarity will be helpful at theft identification, maternity identification, disease identification, etc.
Identification of the ancestral haplotype for apolipoprotein B suggests an African origin of Homo sapiens sapiens and traces their subsequent migration to Europe and the Pacific.
The Dangerous Rise and Impending Collapse of Homo Sapiens
The probable ancestral haplotype for human apolipoprotein B apoB has been identified through immunological analysis of chimpanzee and gorilla serum and sequence analysis of their DNA. Moreover, the frequency of this ancestral apoB haplotype among different human populations provides strong support for the African origin of Homo sapiens sapiens and their subsequent migration from Africa to Europe and to the Pacific.
The approach used here for the identification of the ancestral human apoB haplotype is likely to be applicable to many other genes. Leukotriene signaling in the extinct human subspecies Homo denisovan and Homo neanderthalensis. Structural and functional comparison with Homo sapiens. Mammalian lipoxygenases LOXs have been implicated in cell differentiation and in the biosynthesis of pro- and anti-inflammatory lipid mediators.
The initial draft sequence of the Homo neanderthalensis genome coverage of 1. Meanwhile high quality genomic sequence data became available for two extinct human subspecies H. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences in connection with site-directed mutagenesis studies and structural modeling suggested that the major enzymes and receptors of leukotriene signaling as well as the two cyclooxygenase isoforms were fully functional in these two extinct human subspecies.
Emergence of a Homo sapiens -specific gene family and chromosome 16p Genetic differences that specify unique aspects of human evolution have typically been identified by comparative analyses between the genomes of humans and closely related primates, including more recently the genomes of archaic hominins. Not all regions of the genome, however, are equally amenable to such study. Recurrent copy number variation CNV at chromosome 16p Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of the locus and identify bolA family member 2 BOLA2 as a gene duplicated exclusively in Homo sapiens.
We estimate that a kilobase-pair segment containing BOLA2 duplicated across the critical region approximately thousand years ago ka , one of the latest among a series of genomic changes that dramatically restructured the locus during hominid evolution. Molecular biology of Homo sapiens : Abstracts of papers presented at the 51st Cold Spring Harbor symposium on quantitative biology.
The topic for this meeting was the ''Molecular Biology of Homo sapiens. Differential effects of visual context on pattern discrimination by pigeons Columba livia and humans Homo sapiens. Three experiment examined the role of contextual information during line orientation and line position discriminations by pigeons Columba livia and humans Homo sapiens. Experiment 1 tested pigeons' performance with these stimuli in a target localization task using texture displays. Experiments 2 and 3 tested pigeons and humans, respectively, with small and large variations of these stimuli in a same-different task.
Humans showed a configural superiority effect when tested with displays constructed from large elements but not when tested with the smaller, more densely packed texture displays. The pigeons, in contrast, exhibited a configural inferiority effect when required to discriminate line orientation, regardless of stimulus size. These contrasting results suggest a species difference in the perceptionand use of features and contextual information in the discrimination of line information. Self-control across species Columba livia, Homo sapiens , and Rattus norvegicus.
Data from six previous studies of self-control behavior were compared against predictions made by the matching law and by molar maximization. The studies involved pigeons Columba livia , rats Rattus norvegicus , and 3-year-old, 5-year-old, and adult humans Homo sapiens who had received food as the reinforcer, and adult humans who had received points exchangeable for money as the reinforcer. Neither theory proved to be an accurate or better predictor for all groups. In contrast to the predictions of these theories, self-control was shown to vary according to species, human age group, and reinforcer quality.
When the reinforcer was food, the self-control of different species was found to be negatively correlated with metabolic rate; that is, larger species showed greater self-control. These results suggest that allometric scaling may prove useful in describing and predicting species differences in self-control. The ontogeny of serial-order behavior in humans Homo sapiens : representation of a list.
Homo Sapiens, Evolution, Money & Bitcoin – Hacker Noon
The authors trained 3-, 4-, 7-, and year-old children and adults Homo sapiens on a nonverbal serial-order task to respond to 5 items in a specific order. Knowledge of each item's sequential position was then examined using pairwise and triplet tests. Adults and 7- and year-olds performed at high levels on both tests, whereas 3- and 4-year-olds did not. The latency to respond to the first item of a test pair or triplet was linearly related to that item's position in the training series for the 7- and year-olds and adults, but not for the 3- and 4-year-olds.
These data suggest that older children and adults, but not younger children, developed a well-integrated internal representation of the serial list.
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Do chimpanzees Pan troglodytes and 2-year-old children Homo sapiens understand double invisible displacement? Chimpanzees Pan troglodytes and young children Homo sapiens have difficulty with double invisible displacements in which an object is hidden in two nonadjacent boxes in a linear array. Experiment 1 eliminated the possibility that chimpanzees' previous poor performance was due to the hiding direction of the displacement device.
As in Call , subjects failed double nonadjacent displacements, showing a tendency to select adjacent boxes. In Experiments 2 and 3, chimpanzees and month-old children were tested on a new adaptation of the task in which four hiding boxes were presented in a diamond-shaped array on a vertical plane.
Both species performed above chance on double invisible displacements using this format, suggesting that previous poor performance was due to a response bias or inhibition problem rather than a fundamental limitation in representational capacity. Copyright APA, all rights reserved. Cancer cells evade apoptosis, which is regulated by proteins of Bcl-2 family in the intrinsic pathways.
In this review article, the 3D structures of the Bcl-2 family proteins from Homo sapiens and as well complex structures of the anti-apoptotic proteins bound with small molecular inhibitors reported in the literature to date have been comprehensively listed out and described in detail. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms by which the Bcl-2 family proteins modulate the apoptotic processes and strategies for designing antagonists to anti-apoptotic proteins have been concisely discussed.
Protamines and spermatogenesis in Drosophila and Homo sapiens : A comparative analysis. The production of mature and motile sperm is a detailed process that utilizes many molecular players to ensure the faithful execution of spermatogenesis.