In measure 60, all instruments drop to piano for a six-measure staccato eighth-note section before jumping to an all 16th-note ff in measure 66 to finish off the exposition. The development in measure 69 begins with the same texture as does the opening of the movement—with the 2nd violin, viola, and cello sustaining a chord while the 1st violin plays a solo on top. The first chord, sustained from bars , is a d minor chord, the relative minor of the dominant F major.
The second chord, sustained from bars , is an F sharp diminished seventh chord, resolving to G minor in measure 80, which signifies the return of trading moving 16th-notes. The following 5 measures revolve around G minor, only to modulate to E-flat major in measure The major tonality lasts but two measures, as it shifts to F minor in measure 88, F sharp diminished in 89, and G minor in measure This sets up a pattern for the rest of the development section, in which one instrument, mainly the 1st violin in measures , fills in an eighth-rest with a lone eighth-note, thus giving each measure a steady eighth-note pulse.
Throughout this section, the dynamic gradually drops from forte to pianissimo by means of a poco a poco decrescendo. When the pianissimo is finally reached in measure , the retransition to the recapitulation begins, ending on the dominant seventh chord F of the original key, B flat Major.
String Quartets, Op. 76 (Haydn)
In measure , the beginning of the recapitulation begins just as the beginning of the exposition does—the 2nd violin, viola, and cello sustaining a tonic chord while the 1st violin plays the sunrise motif above it. In measure , the allegro con spirito 16th-note section returns in the 1st violin, punctuated by staccato eighth-notes in the other instruments. The 16th-notes trade off to the 2nd violin, culminating in an all-instrument unison in measure After this, the opening theme returns again, with the solo line beginning with the cello and moving up through the viola to the 2nd violin.
In measure , all strings crescendo to the returning 16th-note theme in measure In measure , the staccato eighth-note trade-off section returns, in the tonic key and piano dynamic. A fortissimo appears in measure , beginning the lead into the I7 chord fermata. Beginning in the following measure, the viola, and two violins pass each other the opening sunrise motif for a measure at a time, while the remaining instruments sustain chords. The tonic returns in measure , with a brief teaser of the staccato eighth-note theme, to be replaced by the 16th-notes played by all instruments in the fortissimo dynamic.
In the final three bars, all four instruments play a succession of tonic B flat major chords. The work consists of four movements:. The second movement, written in F-sharp major in cut time, is in sonata form. According to Keller, author of The Great Haydn Quartets, the composer quotes in a different key his own second movement from Op.
Additionally, in both pieces, the viola and cello play in slurred succession the notes in the 3rd, 4th, 3rd and 1st, 2nd, 1st scale degrees, respectively. All of this occurs while the 2nd violin holds the 5th scale degree for the duration of the measure. The third movement is written in an old minuet form in which an Alternativo section replaces the more common trio. The alternativo section is built upon a series of ascending and descending iambic scales.
Skip to main content. Classical Music. Search for:. Haydn: String Quartets, Op. Alfred Publishing Company. In stark contrast to the noisy opera house, which thrived on novelty, here sameness was actively promoted and celebrated. When the Philharmonic Society in had the temerity to feature a work by George Onslow who of course had the misfortune of being partly French , it was roundly castigated:.
Parts, Versions, Transpositions
No band in this country can do such justice to Mozart, Beethoven, and Spohr, as that of the Philharmonic. One agent of this new economy brings us very close to home. His remedy was a novel one if, given his profession, not entirely disinterested : it was to 'render musical performances as intellectual as they are sensual'.
This would be achieved if a 'prologue As least so far as I know, this revolution did not immediately come about; but there is no doubt that what we might call score-based exegesis was also on the rise. The Gresham College lectures in music, which had been a London institution since the sixteenth century, took a decisive new turn in Instead of narrow technical matters directed towards budding composers, the Gresham Professor of the day decided that 'the real benefit of music lectures consists in the extension and enlightenment of the musical public-and these purposes will be always answered, when a conscientious musician, earnest in the cause which he advocates, endeavours to influence the thoughts and feelings of his audience in behalf of that which is really good, by setting before them, in as complete a state as possible, a series of choice compositions-.
Professors of music were, in other words, on the march; and they armed themselves with a potent new scripture, one engraved with musical notation.
We're come a long way since those days, although-as you can see-the similarities of then and now are still striking, suggesting how long the present-day rituals of 'classical' concerts have been with us, and'some may feel-how ossified they have become. The main task, at least for me, is to try to find some way of characterising the musical substance of the quartet in question that will be an aid in listening: one that avoids the flowery fantasies of E. Hoffmann on the one hand and the austere, score-based dissections of Hans Keller on the other.
So what's the best way forward? Instead of attempting anything like a narrative approach, one that inevitably seems to rely on 'score-based' tactics, I want to experiment today with concentrating on just four moments: the starts of each movement. I mentioned in the first lecture how the first quartet in the series, Op.
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In this sense, Op. It begins in a severe, dark-toned minor mode, the first violin announcing a stark, four-note motive made up of two descending fifths, with the other instruments providing a functional accompaniment. It will soon become clear to you that this opening motive dominates the entire movement, and a hair-shirted pleasure might be taken from locating all its various transformations: into the bass, upside down, with its rhythm intact but its melodic profile changed, in faster notes, in counterpoint; and so on and on. Movement 2, an Andante, is the greatest contrast imaginable.
A simple, lightly ornamented melody in the first violin is accompanied by pizzicato lower strings, evidently in imitation of the 'light' genre from which the string quartet emerged. Although there are moments of interest for the other instruments, this is something like an 'aria' for the first violin, more akin to a variation movement than anything else. Movement 3, a minuet and trio, launches us back into austerity-the mood and key of the first movement.
Its texture is the most severe imaginable. The four instruments are divided into two pairs two violins on one side, viola and cello on the other ; both pairs play in octave unison and are set in angry canon with each other. The effect so extraordinary-so angular and so bare-that it sounds as though Haydn is deliberately making the point that in his hands the quartet has an enormous variety of combinations at its disposal: from the simple voice-and-accompaniment of the slow movement to the present uncompromising severity.
As so often in late Haydn, the route to late Beethoven is suddenly made obvious. I read somewhere that this third movement has been called the 'witches' minuet' Hexenminuett ; if this encourages you to imagine cauldrons and pointed black hats, then so be it: quite why, though, witches would indulge in such strict counterpoint poses something of a challenge, as does inventing a suitable programme for the strongly contrasting trio.
The last movement announces another wild change, into a musical atmosphere that would have been recognised as 'exotic' or 'folk-like' by its first hearers, and that probably gestures towards Hungarian idioms. It too, some of you will be pleased to hear, has a nickname: it's know as 'The Donkey', and I won't insult you by pointing out why. And so we have it. Another quartet that covers an enormous distance by means of its four movements: from the most demanding and developed of 'modern' styles in the first movement, to lighter gestures in the second, to strange, alienating originality in the third, and to a national-idiom 'character piece' in the last.
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These contrasts make enormous demands on the performers, reminding us once more that the string quartet, which had come from such humble beginnings a few decades previously, had now, in the hands of Joseph Haydn, become a musical vessel of tremendous potency. Here play it for us Haydn's Op. Badke Quartet plays. Device is incompatible to play the video. Share this lecture. Bookmark this lecture. Download this lecture. Read More. The Badke Quartet. Download audio file. Musical performances String quartets Music.
Let me quote at some length: In Haydn's writing there prevails the expression of a serene and childlike personality. Here's just some of the discussion of the opening in Hans Keller's The Great Haydn Quartets : It must be admitted upon reflection that the octave unison with which the finale starts is itself an introduction; it has gone entirely unobserved, because nobody has expected Haydn to extend his variations on the theme of the introduction to the last movement Another spilled over into missionary zeal when enthusing over what the performers could achieve: They were not merely providing a cheap enjoyment for multitudes, of the most unquestionable character, but they were diffusing a refinement of taste, and a power of appreciation, which belongs to the best agencies of civilization.
When the Philharmonic Society in had the temerity to feature a work by George Onslow who of course had the misfortune of being partly French , it was roundly castigated: No band in this country can do such justice to Mozart, Beethoven, and Spohr, as that of the Philharmonic. Related Future Lectures.
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