By integrating the subjective emotional valence and present impact , the most afflicting LEs could be selected as a central theme within the therapeutic process. Moreover, in LE research, the SEL could be a valuable measurement to associate subjective emotional ratings with future health status, to identify subgroups of LEs as well as their differential impacts on diseases, and to integrate personal circumstances and LE evaluations. Within our own working group, the SEL will be used for longitudinal analyses regarding physical and mental health based on future follow-up measurements of the SHIP studies.
Moreover, the SEL can inform research on the interplay between life experiences and biological factors, e. Previous studies have demonstrated the impact of subjective emotional evaluations in addition to objective valence assessments [ 71 ], and LEs have been repeatedly demonstrated to enhance the risk of various mental and physical diseases, especially if interacting with genetic dispositions [ 4 , 8 , 10 , 13 , 14 ].
The SEL not only enables the testing of the impact of LEs on the pathology of diseases but also integrates the impact of the experience with the individual emotional valence and subjective long-lasting life impact. Thus, the SEL could help generate and test new models of the pathogenesis of various disorders and facilitate research on potential mechanisms of stress balance.
Moreover, the SEL is adaptable not only in the lifetime period measured but also in the individuality of the appraisal. The described SEL scores are only one way of analysing the data.
More individualized analyses can be generated and are desirable in future research. Therefore, we recommend the SEL as a valuable instrument in life event research on disorder and health outcomes. Information about generating datasets used during the current study is available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
None of these funding bodies had any influence on the design of the SHIP-studies, nor on the collection, analysis and interpretation of data. As JK is employed at the University Medicine Greifswald, the statistical analyses and the writing of the manuscript were funded by the University Medicine Greifswald. The interpretation of the data was not influenced by any funding.
JK has developed and written the manuscript including all analyses. All authors gave final approval to the version to be published. All analyses were performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, including written informed consent of all participants. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Assessment of subjective emotional valence and long-lasting impact of life events: development and psychometrics of the Stralsund Life Event List SEL.
Open Access. First Online: 18 April Part of the following topical collections: Social psychiatry, therapy and provision of mental health care. Background Life events LEs are associated with future physical and mental health. Methods The SEL is a standardized interview that assesses the time of occurrence and frequency of 81 LEs, their subjective emotional valence, the perceived social support during the LE experience and the impact of past LEs on present life.
Conclusions The SEL is a valid instrument that enables the analysis of the number and frequency of LEs, their emotional valence, perceived social support and current impact on life on a global score and on an individual item level. Background Negative life events LEs have been associated with enhanced biological stress reactions and enhanced risk of physical and mental diseases.
This research approach requires an advanced assessment tool to evaluate various aspects of LEs: 1. Further interviews and psychometric data To associate LEs with pathogenic mechanisms of mental and physical diseases, valid diagnoses are essential. Statistical analyses For descriptive analyses, metric variables are reported in means M and standard deviations SD.
Classification process of LEs To aggregate LE information but sustain inter-individual and inter-LE comparability, we a posteriori applied a classification process that resulted in three classes of LEs valence categories typifying positive, negative and neutral LEs. SEL scores Since we aimed to aggregate the rating information assessed by the SEL, we calculated scores based on the classification process described.
Verification analyses To verify the explanatory power of the SEL, well-studied relations between LEs, childhood trauma, health and individual resources were replicated. Descriptive statistics The following analyses are based on participants Open image in new window. Table 3 Regression coefficients of the verification analyses. Positive Negative Basic number of Life Events 0. Verification analyses For verification analyses, we assessed well-established relations between LEs and mental health.
Internal consistency Tavakol and Dennick [ 50 ] summarized that alphas between 0. Future implications Within a therapeutic setting, the SEL could be used to assess LEs occurring immediately before a disease onset.
Universität Mannheim: Humanities (English)
Ethics approval and consent to participate All analyses were performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, including written informed consent of all participants. Consent for publication Not applicable. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. To estimate the inter-rater and test-retest reliability, a small second, clinical sample was used.
The methods, results, discussion and limitations of these analyses are presented within this supplementary material. Occurrence agreement of the life event items. Reliability of the occurrence time coding of selected life events 1. Life event items and corresponding abbreviations of the SEL interview.
Coding Example. The most important experience was at the age of The person had one subclinical depressive episode at the age of 32 and an initial panic attack at the age of Hence, life event ratings concern the age of 18 for the whole lifespan and the 5-year period before the initial panic attack. For the 5-year period before the subclinical depressive episode, life event ratings concern the age of Note: Due to the life event items some information is unavailable. Due to a low using frequency and in desire to improve the inter-individual comparability, open questions were not considered in the classification process.
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